The Birth of the Republic

What is the date for Indonesia’s proclamation of independence?  17th of August 1945.

Who did they proclaim independence from? The Japanese.

What two documents would guide the country? Pancasila and Constitution.

How is the leadership of the country set up under the new country’s constitution? Describe it.
The new leadership of the country is set up by first the president who is the leader of the country and also the chief executive, second are the vice-president and a cabinet of ministers who are the assistant of the president. Then later the People’s Consultative Assembly organizes the sovereignty of the people. The legislative power is control in the House of Representatives. The other organizations of the country are the Supreme Court, supreme advisory council and supreme audit board.

What is the MPR and who has to “answer to it” (accountable)?   Click here for the breakdown of the executive branch. Why is this important to have in a government system? What does it do to the spread of power?
MPR is the People’s Consultative Assembly. The one who “answer to it” is the President. It is important for a country to have a governmental system because it’ll make the country well organized. It has to do with the spread of power because this governmental system will not be working to the whole country if there isn’t the spread of power. There must be the spread of power to make this government system works because if only for example one city is under power that means that only one city is organize and not the other cities that haven’t been checked or arranged by the leader, especially Indonesia is quite a big country.

List the institutions of the state.

-                     Supreme Court
-                     Supreme Advisory Council
-                     Supreme Audit Board
-                     People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR)
-                     House of Representatives (DPR)

Who was the first president? First vice-president? Why do you think they were chosen for these positions?
The first president is Soekarno and the first vice-president is Hatta. I personally think that they were chosen for these positions because they were the leaders of Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI), which is a group of people that planned the tactics, made the Pancasila and many more to help the country to be independent. And I think because of that, they are chosen to be the first president and vice-president of the country.

Stop, Think and Write (use complete sentences): What other countries were formed in similar ways? Do you think they influenced each other? Why or why not?
            Other countries that were formed in similar ways like Indonesia are India, United Kingdom and United States. I think they affect each other because those countries have the same government system in the world that if something in the government system had been changed, all of the countries’ government systems will also be changed too.

The War of Independence
What struggles did the new republic face right away? The Dutch came back to Indonesia for the purpose of retake the East Indies control.

Stop, Think and Write (use complete sentences): “Repatriating” means bringing someone back to their home country after being gone for a long period of time. What was the task of the British troops in Southeast Asia? Why would they need to do this?
            The task of the British troops in there was to bring back their internees and prisoners that were caught by wars. The British troops need to do this because they needed those people of them to help the military in their country, maybe.

What happened in November in 1945 between the British and Indonesian freedom fighters? How long did this last? In November 1945, there was a war between the British and Indonesian freedom fighters, which cause a member of the British troop, Brigadier Mallaby to die. And, the fighting the British troops did have made the Indonesians realized how superior they are. So, because of this, the Indonesians made a guerrilla. This lasts for 4 years.

Diplomacy and Fighting

What was VP Hatta’s manifesto? Click here to see the “peace policy 22”. What is it? Good neighborhood, peace 22 with the world. The “peace policy 22” is a policy that says to not have wars between each other and just have peace with other countries.

Click here to see the list of Indonesian Prime Ministers. Who was first? Sutan Sjahrir.

Usually, when an executive branch has a president, there is no Prime Minister, but that was not the case in Indonesia for years. When did this end, according to the link? According to the link, it ends in 1966.

What was the “repatriation of Japanese troops”? The “repatriation of Japanese troops” was the time when the Japanese brings back their members of the troops that were a prisoner or internees in another country other than their country; in this case it’s Indonesia. The “repatriation of Japanese troops” that time was begun on the 28th of April 1946.

When was the seat of government moved from Jakarta to Yogyakarta? Why? 4th of January 1946. It is because of the fight between Indonesia and Dutch troops keep on going.
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