Nationalist Movements


How did the nationalist movements evolve? What pushed them to form?

            The nationalist movements evolve because of the regional wars that were failing. The move started on the 20th of May 1908, with Boedi Oetomo founded. Boedi Oetomo was found by Dr. Soetomo, a student of an institution that trains Indonesia’s medical officers (STOVIA). This nationalist movement was also inspired as the Japan gained victory over their war against Russia in the year 1901.


What were the first group nationalists called?  What was it? Boedi Oetomo. It’s an Indonesian organization that provides education but later, this organization was changed for politics.


Who won against Russia in 1901? Why is this significant for Indonesia?

Japan won over Russia in 1901, and this is a significant thing for Indonesia because it makes lots of Indonesian people in different places get inspirations to be a nationalist.


Who founded Boedi Oetomo? Dr. Soetomo is the one who founded Boedi Oetomo.


Haji Samanhudi formed an association of Muslim merchants called Sarekat Dagang Islam (in English) in the year 1912. It’s objective was to encourage and promote Indonesian business with the Dutch East Indies.


In 1912, Muhammadiyah was formed in Yogyakarta (city) for the purpose of social and economic reforms.


Who is Douwes Dekker and what did he do? What happened to he and two other party leaders under the Dutch government in 1913? Why do you think that happened? Douwes Dekker is the founder of Partai Indonesia. He was named Setiabudi then. He made Partai Indonesia for a purpose to try to make Indonesia to be independent. In the year 1913, the three party leaders were banished by the colonial government. I think this happened because the colonial government doesn’t want Indonesia to be independent.


 How did PKI form? When was communism introduced? PKI formed because of the Sarikat Islam that splits into right and left wing. It was introduced in May 1920.



Powerless People’s Council or Volkstraad


Describe the function of the Volkstraad. What was its purpose? Volkstraad is a council that consists of powerless people. Its function is for Indonesian people to rule over Indonesia in cooperate with the Dutch as a leader. Its purpose is so that Indonesian people could be busy on something, which actually benefited the Dutch (preventing the Indonesians to plan for their independence).


What war put pressure on The Netherlands to allow Indonesia more freedom? The World War I.


What organization did Drs. Mohammad Hatta, Dr. Sukiman form? What was its influence? Perhimpunan Mahasiswa Indonesia. Its influence is to become the nationalist movement to become independence.


Describe some of the activity of the PKI.

PKI rebels against the colonial government in West Java in November 1926 and also in January 1927 in West Sumatra. They throw out a lot of non-communist nationalist leader to Tanah Merah.



What freedoms were taken away from islanders by colonialist rule because of increasing labor strikes and poor economic conditions?

Freedoms that were taken away from islanders by colonialist rule were the freedom of assembly, speech and expression in writing.


Further Growth of Indonesian Organizations


What organization was founded to promote national education?

Taman Siswa is the organization that was founded to promote national education.


 STOP & WRITE: Explain the impact this foundation had on the outcome of the revolution.

The impact from this foundation is that it became a driving force for the nationalist movement to obtain independence, which really helps Indonesia to be independent.



What was the "League Against Imperialism and Colonial Oppression" in Brussels and who attended it?

“League Against Imperialism and Colonial Oppression” is the first international convention. The people who attended it were Mohammad Hata, Achmad Soebardjo, and many other members of Indonesia’s Movements.


What was significant about the chosen language of PNI?  Why did they choose to use this language?

PNI chosen language is significant as their chosen language will be Indonesia’s official language. They also chose Bahasa Indonesia for the official language of Indonesia because it is the militant policy of non-cooperation with the government.



Before the all-Indonesian nationalist movement, how were the movements organized?

It was based on regionalism. They were organized according to their regions, they also have its own name for each region, and some of them are Young Java, Young Sumatra and Young Ambon.


Who was arrested by the colonial government in December of 1929? Why? How long was he in Dutch custody?

In December of 1929 , Soekarno, leader of PNI was arrested because of Dutch’s concern about the growing national freedom awareness. He was in Dutch custody for about 11 years, from December 1929 until September 1931 but then arrested again in August 1933 until 1942.


In 1931, what organization did Budi Hatta join? In 1931, Budi Hatta joined the Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia organization or also known as the new PNI.


Explain the requests of the GAPI. Why do you think the Dutch government did not agree to them? GAPI request is to set up a full Indonesian congress. I think the Dutch do not agree to them because of course the Dutch won’t trust them as the people there are only Indonesians.


The Japanese Occupation

When did the Dutch colonial army surrender to the Japanese forces? 1942


What was the "Great East Asia Co-prosperity"? What was its true purpose? The “Great East Asia Co-prosperity” is Japanese promoting campaign. Its true purpose is to make the Indonesians to not really realize the Japanese replace from the Dutch colonialism.



How were Indonesians gradually given more rights as the war progressed in the west? STOP AND WRITE: What forced the Japanese to give more freedoms to the Indonesian people? Indonesians were given more rights by being allowed to fly the Indonesian national flag up in the air, also to allow people of Indonesia to recognize the “Indonesia Raya” song as the national anthem of Indonesia. The Japanese was forced by the 4th Pacific war that gave pressure on them and also their attacks to other countries that made them busy so that they have to give some freedoms for the Indonesian people.

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